Running head: GENDER AND SEXUALITY PAPER 1
GENDER AND SEXUALITY 6
Gender and Sexuality
Gender and Sexuality
According to Arndt (2017), sexuality denotes person’s physical, biological and chemical makeups. To differentiate two persons on the basis of sexuality, you will incorporate differences in chromosomes, genes, internal and external sexual organs and hormonal profiles. On the other hand, gender denotes the roles and responsibility that persons of the two sexes have in the community. It designates all those traits that are ascribed to men or women by the members of a community or by the culture (Kalaramadam, 2016). For this reason, it can be said that gender roles and responsibilities have variations across diverse cultures, beliefs, and civilizations and countries. Gender roles ascribed to males have an aspect of masculinity whereas those ascribed to a female have aspects of femininity.
Patriarchy is the main system in many societies that govern the relationships between males and females. Patriarchy system denotes the rule of the males in a social unit where the male takes a dominant role. On the hand, women play subordinate roles (Freysinger, 2013). This is one of the various reasons why women are oppressed in private sectors. Economic systems have also enhanced gender-based violence and abuse in private sectors. In our society today, men are considered as the breadwinner in our families. For this reason, some organizations pay them well compared to women. On the other hand, women in some societies perform jobs that are not paying. Such jobs include caring for the babies and keeping their families intact (Worell, 2002). Such roles are not considered when the country is adding up domestic products. When it comes to inheritance of properties, women in some communities are discriminated against. This has influenced some private sectors to pay workers in accordance with their gender.
Culture and norms of society also have led to women oppression in private sectors. Culture is the way of life of any society. For instance, gender roles, responsibilities and types of certain behaviors are passed and ascribed to males and females. Boys are not expected to cry. According to Hellinger (2015), men have the role in protecting the family and social roles linked to men have power and control. This consequently has influence sharing of the position of powers in private sectors.
Political systems have also led to oppression of women in private organizations. It is worth noting that it was until the 1970s that women were allowed to run international organizations, governmental institutions, and big business. This has led to situations where women continue to live as second-class citizens and are discriminated against in our private organizations (Jones, 2016). Despite the fact that many organizations are fighting for the rights of women today, discrimination, as well as oppression, will take a lot of time to alleviate.
The ability of the law to fight gender violence in private sector is affected by many things as discussed below
The Failure of the Organizations to Embrace Set Rules For Gender Parity.
Despite the fact that many countries recognize equal rights between genders; this is not always the case. Many of these countries have come up with regulations that intend to counter-attack discrimination, and grantee women access different programs such as health, economic rights and education (Rizwaan & Mantry, 2014). However, these same regulations bear no fruits. A compassionate institution to bridge this gap concerned gender equality is needed.
Weak Gender Management
Gender management system operations require enabled environment. When the environment is weak, main activities of gender management system has a role to add strength to it (Leonard, 2017). Various factors interrelate to determine the level to which environment in which the gender management system is being set up does or does not enable effective gender mainstreaming.
Inability of the Constitutional Agencies and Gender Rights Organizations to Enhance Gender Parity
The constitution of any country is one of the liberal as well as progressive in the whole world. However, the question is how many constitutional agencies and gender rights organizations are willing to enhance gender parity is another matter (Kimura, 2016). To promote gender equity, these organizations must interpret the constitution in accordance with its doctrines. They should encourage the election of number women to satisfy gender equity rule. This can even be achieved through nominations to increase the membership figure in national bodies.
The challenges mentioned earlier can be overcomed in various ways as discussed below;
Enhancing Evaluation of Private Organization on Matters of Gender
Evaluation strengthens the ability of private organizations in achieving gender-based equality in three ways. First, evaluation enables the administration to have a critical look at existing norms and existing programs and ask whether the organization is doing the right things (Denmark, Rabinowitz & Sechzer, 2016). Secondly, it allows the administration to revisit operational outcomes in the process of understanding what is working and why. And third, evaluation offers a window for comparison of results in the world to foster knowledge sharing
Creating New Laws That Mandate Every Organization to Have Gender Parity Policies
The government should create new laws that mandate all private organizations to have gender parity policies. All types of activities in the private organization should mainstream in a gender perspective. Gender mainstreaming that is globally accepted should be made a law in all organization to achieve gender equality amongst the employees (Baker & Wiseman, 2009). Gender mainstreaming ensures gender equality is central to all types of activities. These activities include research, legislation, resource allocation, planning, dialogues, monitoring and implementing of projects and programs. The 2001 to 2006 report by Commission on the Status of Women (CWS) indicated that equal participation of both women and men in decision making was not enhanced by many organizations and was not incorporated in the laws of many organizations
Training Of the Management Boards of Private Organizations on the Issue of Gender Parity
Training the boards of management in private organizations on issues of gender equality can play a vital role of providing them with the knowledge, values, and skills that will enable them in their contribution to attaining effective and efficient implementation of gender mainstreaming. Any organization that invests in training its board members help them to identify gender inequalities in various activities, define the objectives of gender equality and put into consideration gender while planning and implementing policies (Cedillo, 2013). All these activities require adequate knowledge skills and at times change of attitudes and behaviors. Therefore training is an essential element in handling gender equality in private organizations (Demos & Segal, 2009).
As illustrated in above, it is evident that private organizations experience gender-based violence amongst the workers. To overcome these challenges, every person must be in a position to respect the rights of every member of these organizations (Bustelo, Ferguson & Forest, 2016). The government has to come up with policies that will enhance equal rights at places of work.
Arndt, J. (2017). Gender and Sexuality; A Practical Approach. S.l.: Worth Publications
Baker, D., & Wiseman, A. (2009). Gender, Equality and Education from International and Comparative Perspectives. Bradford: Emerald Group Publications.
Bustelo, M., Ferguson, L., & Forest, M. (2016). The politics of feminist knowledge transfer: Gender training and gender expertise. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cedillo, E. (2013). Gender Policies. Ottawa: North-South Institute.
Demos, V. P., & Segal, M. T. (2009). Perceiving gender locally, globally, and intersectionally. Bingley: Emerald JAI.
Denmark, F., Rabinowitz, V. C., & Sechzer, J. A. (2016). Engendering Psychology: Women and gender revisited. London: Routledge.
Freysinger, V. J. (2013). Leisure, women, and gender. State College: Venture Publications.
Hellinger, M. (2015). Gender Politics; Role of Men in the Family. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Jones, O. (2016). Why Women fear being Leaders in Organizations; A critical approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kalaramadam, S. (2016). Gender. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Kimura, M. (2016). Unfolding the ‘comfort women’ debates: Modernity, violence, women’s voices. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
Leonard, M. N. (2017). Gender equality and identity rights. Broomall, PA: Mason Crest.
Rizwaan, M., & Mantry, A. K. (2014). Gender equality and women empowerment. New Delhi: Saad Publications.
Worell, J. (2002). Encyclopedia of women and gender: Sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender. San Diego: Academic Press.
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Running head: GENDER AND SEXUALITY PAPER 1