How can asthma be discovered by the asthmatic bronchiole layer?
This assessment is carried out by looking, listening and feeling for signs of respiratory distress, including sweating, abdominal breathing and the patient’s use of accessory muscles for breathing. It is a crucial assessment for diagnosis and treatment severe asthma, haemothorax, and pulmonary edema, all of which are life-threatening illnesses.
It was evident that Rose was using increased breathing effort with very shallow rapid breaths. Her chest expansion appeared equal on both sides. Rose said she was feeling “anxious about losing her baby.” On counting Rose’s breaths, she achieved a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute, above normal ranges 12-20bpm. This occurs as a result of a shortage of oxygen entering into the lungs thus increasing the number of times the air is inhaled in a shorter period with the aim of providing the body with oxygen for it to function properly. An increase in respiratory rate does not happen immediately but gradually, deteriorating as time goes on.
The asthmatic bronchiole layer compared to the normal bronchial layer has increased mucus production, with increased mast cell numbers leading to an increase in histamine release, thus causing bronchiole hyper-responsiveness. There is also an increased number of neutrophils during inflammation as well as smooth muscle hypertrophy due to the constriction. After exposure to an allergen, the patient’s smooth muscles will spasm, leading to an increase in mucus secretion. This will cause the airway to narrow, making it difficult to breathe. This explains why Rose was experiencing breathing difficulties.