What is the Chronic myeloid leukemia?
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disease also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia which is cancer which specifically targets the formation of the blood cells within the bone marrow. When the myeloid cells are immature, there is a genetic change which occurs through the progress of chronic myeloid leukemia. Myeloid cells make up red blood cells, platelets and white cells excluding lymphocytes. The genetic change which triggers chronic myeloid leukemia to develop creates an abnormal gene which is known as BCR-ABL, this gene causes the cells to become chronic myeloid cells, this means that the cells are only partially mature. There are three stages to CML: chronic stage accelerated stage and blastic stage.
Some symptoms can be weight loss and fatigue, the patient’s abdomen may be swollen due to enlarged spleen due to excess storage of the leukemia cells, and lastly, the levels of the white blood cell and platelets will increase.
Chronic myeloid leukemia patients undergo a reciprocal translocation between the ABL (found on chromosome 9) with the BCR (found on chromosome 22), this creates the Philadelphia chromosome which is known as a tyrosine kinase. There are many forms of treatment which include the following, stem cell transplant, chemotherapy, targeted therapy with tyrosine kinases inhibitor. There are five different tyrosine kinases inhibitor which has been approved for the CML which are, the imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib and recently discovered ponatinib.