How the climate and pollution affect the woods?
Each plant species has an individual range of temperatures in which it can survive. Plant growth and development can be greatly affected by temperatures. In general, vegetative development is shown to increase with higher temperatures, however too high temperatures could lead to drought. During the developmental stage, many plants are unable to adapt to survive extreme temperatures. Plant growth is also greatly affected by soil moisture. Plants tend to have upper and lower limitations when it comes to moisture. The upper limitation is known as field capacity; this is the volume of water left in the soil after excess has drained away and downward movement has been reduced. The lower limit is called the “permanent wilting percentage” and is when the soil ceases to fold adequate water to allow normal plant growth.
One type of pollution which affects plants and therefore plant diversity is air pollution. This not only adds to global warming which increases temperatures (effect on plants stated above) but is also damaging to the vegetation itself. Although there are many pollutants, some of the most prominent are sulfur dioxide(〖SO〗_2) and ozone(O_3). There are various effects caused by the damaging pollution, some of which are premature leaf dropping, stunted growth and twig dieback.
Other types of pollution affecting plant growth are water and soil pollution; these can have both positive and negative effects. Fertilizers may leach into water sources from surrounding soil, increasing their nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents. These nutrients encourage plant growth; however, in areas with stagnant bodies of water, algae growth can cause oxygen deprivation to plant and animal life below the algal bloom. Acid rain can cause a decrease in water pH in the soil which may be out with plants growing range. Extremely acidic or basic pHs could kill plants, leading to a decrease in diversity. Phytotoxicity may also occur which causes dead spots on leaves, dying seedlings, and poor growth. This is caused by root uptake of chemicals which are toxic to plants, so, therefore, poison them.