How does the damage of epidermis influence the xenobiotic absorption?
Substances may also be absorbed by trans-follicular absorption, with the xenobiotic bypasses the membrane barrier by diffusing around the hair stalk and into the hair follicle. Due to the presence of sweat glands in the epidermis absorption may take place here, however, the amount of absorption is proportional to the surface skin area covered by the sweat gland, approximately 0.1 to 1 per cent. If the epidermis is damaged, then the dermis and the capillaries may be open to the transport of xenobiotics and infection. The rate at which the xenobiotic is absorbed is dependent upon anatomical and physiological characteristics of the skin, water content of skin, pH, temperature, local blood flow, perspiration, the surface area of contaminated skin, the thickness of skin, the concentration of toxicant, type of medium and the presence of other substances.