What is the evolutionary theory of attachment?
The Evolutionary theory suggests human behavior can be defined through a process known as natural selection. Bowlb theory suggests that attach is a major adaptive quality for the survival of an individual and this is through proximity-seeking behaviour.In this evolutionary theory it explains that attachment is innate and this is because it increases the chance of survival. It was found that humans are born helpless according to this theory, and totally dependent on the caregiver for food, warmth and safety for the infant’s wellbeing and survival for the development. If infants don’t form an attachment, if the adults didn’t form attachment with their infant, this can lead to serious issues, such as emotional and hormonal won’t be able to have functional relationships in later life. The innate nature of attachment was found by Lorenz in the study of his “imprinting of geese”. He suggested that animals simply bond with the first moving object which they encounter, so he seen that we are similar we attach to the caregiver it is part of the human nature. Attachment is innate, the reason is that it promotes survival, which is resulting in attachment which then makes behaviour become innate. Innate programming is when inherited behaviour which is seen to increase survival/ or reproduction which will be pass on to the next generation. Infants that are “pre-programmed” so that they automatically attach with the caregiver aka parent and then the caregiver will attach with the infant. Behaviour which is inherited is seen to increase survival and this will then passed onto the next generation. The second stage in Bowlby’s theory was known as the critical period, this was seen as the set time of opportunity in which attachment should happen. Bowlby believed that there is a critical period, he suggested if an infant doesn’t form attachment within the critical period of 0-2.5 years. He defined later on that a very sensitive period for the infants can be between 0-5 years, he also explained that IVM gives us a template for further attachments. It is believed that all biological traits have a critical period for the infant’s development