What is the individual’s risk of cardiovascular disease?
The life course model suggests that an individual’s risk of cardiovascular disease is influenced by exposures at every stage. Chronic stressors and other modifiable factors can have a cumulative effect, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in any stage. When children go through the adverse experience, their immediate risk to the disease increases as well as their lifetime risk.
Grover et al. 2015 suggest that excess body weight increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and adopting a healthy lifestyle are necessary for any individual. Presence of clinical conditions like hypertension and diabetes also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Human and biological factors like age, gender, ethnicity, and race are important determinant increasing the prevalence of the disease. Hence, people from different racial groups and those with a family history of CVD are two-three times more likely to be affected by the disease. Exposure to chemicals like metals and hydrocarbons also affects blood pressure regulation and elevate the risk of cardiovascular disease. Psychological links to an increase in morbidity and mortality risk among cardiovascular disease patients have also been established as Gallo et al. 2014 suggest the impact of perceived stress and anxiety on the risk of developing the Cardiovascular disease. The review of these risk factors suggests that cardiovascular can be prevented by focusing on health education and lifestyle changes and effective implementation of the preventable health program.