What is the main reason for industrialization growth?
As industrialization grew the need for the city to grow forced the spread into the countryside and initially residential areas were laid out in a regular pattern around the city. Topography had a natural effect on the growth of the city as natural landscape features had to be accommodated in the developing city. Topography determined a variety of urban forms such as “riverine settlement, natural harbor, defensive site, linear ridge, hilltop town and sloped terrain” Figure 2 illustrates how the topography can be used effectively so that space can be utilized in an efficient and functional way.
“The strip-like and L-shaped building blocks of the housing estate are laid out along the slope of the north-facing hillside, which falls away by almost 40 meters. The topography, the precise placing of the building volumes and the angular plan forms resulted in linear access routes as well as ¬urbane intermediate spaces and vantage points that are enlivened in part by shops at the pedestrian level.” Another example of the topography being used within the design of the building by the architect is in the visitor’s center in Pombal where the courtyard space of the existing castle has been used along with existing Gothic windows on the observation deck so that the visitors can view the landscape as part of their experience. “Alberti granted the appropriateness of the “organic” plan for the hilly site…not only a matter of common sense but also of beauty. Alberti also considered the geometric pattern as potentially unsafe and so encouraged streets to wind left and right to offer protection and beauty to the city. Streets would have converged into market areas or places of worship which were focal points for the inhabitants once again illustrating the relationship between urban morphology and urban space as it purposely has form, function, and connectivity.