Does pain affect the respiration?
Additionally, the presence of pain was also considered, according to Courtois et al. (2017) pain effects respiration by increasing its flow, frequency, and volume. Slow breathing may also be linked to pain reduction, but the evidence explaining this underlying physiological mechanism is deficient. The use of opioids, e.g., morphine was also considered as this causes respiratory depression, which is defined as shallow breathing with a rise in peripheral PCO2 and a fall in peripheral oxygen, as well as a reduction in the rate of respiration.
Nevertheless, the above factors were not present in this procedure, which allowed the assessments to be sufficiently monitored, and Jane’s RR was within normal ranges 12-20bpm. This is maintained and controlled by a system of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing difficulty, therefore, becomes evident from the respiratory, central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs.