What are the relationships between neuroticism and gender?
In terms of the relationship between neuroticism and gender, only females displayed a significant positive relationship with exercise addiction. This provides support for Costa, Terracciano & McCrae and Michael & Furnham, who found that females were significantly more neurotic than males. More so, in males the heritability of neuroticism declines from adolescence to adults, however, in females, the heritability is high in adolescence and adulthood. A valid explanation for this could be related to societal pressures relating to appearance, which in turn heightens anxiety. Moreover, high neuroticism in females could be linked to the hormone estrogen, as a surge in this hormone can increase the risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders, which can lead to obsessions that are distressing. Thus, this could explain why neurotic individuals reported symptoms of exercise addiction. Additionally, as the estrogen hormone present in females is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorders, it could aid in explaining why there was a moderate positive correlation between narcissism and neuroticism in individuals.
Jealously is a trait present among neurotic individuals, research by Sindik & Larger on athletes in team sports found that females reported higher levels of jealously compared to males. Kamphoff, Gill & Huddleston suggest that females may experience more jealously if another athlete has a better bond with their coach or teammates. Thus, it is reasonable, that females reporting high neuroticism scores could be jealous of team mate’s relationships, or even so, jealous of how their teammates are performing.