What is the role of PSH index and the CASP-19 index in Dustmann’s report?
Under the ELSA, Dustmann et al. indicate two measures that they use in their report for the empirical analysis specifically the PSH index and the CASP-19 index. The first and unique measure, the Psychological Mental Health Module (PSH) contains a series of twelve questions asked to individuals regarding how they are feeling mentally and emotionally. Adding to that, the PSH is one of the most widely used tests to assess individuals’ depression levels. The second measure, CASP-19 targets elderly people with a series of nineteen theoretically based questions. Similar to the PSH index, it determines signs of depression and anxiety of the individuals interviewed.
By determining the diversity of different individuals and assessing the effect crime has by breaking it down into the various types of crime, this article focuses on the major crimes that create the most impact on people. The data for crime statistics are classified into two main types of crime, namely property crime and violent crime. The main and most common type of crime is property crime, and examples include deliberate damage to private or public property, robbery, vehicle vandalism, fraud and forgery, criminal offenses and other theft crimes. By contrast, examples of violent crime include sexual harassment, a display of force and stealing. This breakdown on the types of crime makes it easier to provide a detailed explanation on which category of crime tends to leave a bigger impact on the mental health of people.
Dustmann et al. present a model by estimating a regression equation and classifying the different types of crime. To assess how the local area crime affects mental health negatively, the causal parameters in the regression are estimated. The parameters are known to be causal parameters, which means that it does not estimate the true and actual effect crime has on the mental well-being of individuals. This estimation model works through assessing and observing a residential area, for example, noting when people shift to another estate and therefore being able to identify the reason for their shift. Some people living in an area with high crime rates may shift to living in another area with low crime rates to reduce the chances of being a prey to the crime and to feel secure and safe. Yet, according to the BHPS, only around 3.4% people shift to another neighborhood.