What does TPN stand for?

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In the beginning, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was introduced, allowing ‘‘pancreatic rest’’ and ‘‘gut rest’’. But no advantages of total parenteral nutrition on   the total hospital stay or incidences of complications of pancreatitis were detected. Besides, intestinal atrophy was noticed, making the condition even worse. However, enteral nutrition (EN) was found to be better at maintaining the gut barrier by helping to modify the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lower the plasma endotoxin level and maintain the normal...
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