What is the effect of the crime?
Crime can be considered a sensitive topic. The effects of crime have been researched through several studies which portray both direct and indirect costs of crime. This report seeks to address the indirect and intangible costs of crime and their impact on the mental well-being of people within the area of the crime. Hamermesh, 1999; Braakman, 2013; Janke et al., 2013 recognize that indirect costs not only cause mental stress among the population but also alters their daily routines making the impact of indirect costs much greater than that of direct costs.
Direct costs refer to costs that affect the victim, while indirect costs refer to the costs that affect individuals and society as a whole. Indirect costs can be difficult to measure, whereas direct costs can be measured daily by carrying out surveys and questionnaires. Moreover, indirect costs can be tangible or intangible. Intangible costs include fear, anxiety, and depression. On the other hand, tangible costs are changes in day to day activities and behaviors, for instance carrying a weapon for self-defence. Becker and Rubinstein indicate clearly that highly concerned crime incidents such as acts of terrorism proves to be detrimental to the whole society. It can lead to an overwhelming feeling of distress and panic, wherein individuals worry about their safety.
Dustmann et al. acknowledge a claim made by Eurobarometer stating that for the preceding years, the citizens of Europe have been distressed by the high crime rates. Europe’s wide population is disturbed by crime, more so by being the indirect victims of crime rather than being the direct victims of it. The Europeans feel that their government authorities should give more attention to the indirect costs of crime, which is what this report is focusing on. According to Layard, mental health is a very serious factor among British citizens and affects almost 2% of the gross domestic product of the country as a whole.