What is the other title of Charlemagne?
Desiderius was forced to surrender himself, his family, and the royal treasure, and the remaining Lombards were obliged to submit to Frankish rule. Interestingly, Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards in addition to his existing kingship. Collins highlights that it was unprecedented for the ruler of one ethnic group to style himself as the king of another ethnic group. Normally, this kind of conquest would be followed by the elimination of the separate ethnic identity associated with the defeated people. However, by September 774, Charles had taken this title and was using it consistently. His use of the title was also not restricted to relations with Italy, and he continued to use it after both of his royal titles were supplemented by his imperial one. Collins believes that this was an extraordinary act which shows Charlemagne to be an exceptional leader. However, he also recognizes that the Lombard War enabled the Saxons to fight back against the Franks successfully. In summary, Charlemagne annexed the Lombard Kingdom in a way which was almost unforeseen, and this highlights his exceptional military leadership. However, the Lombard War also undermined Charlemagne by facilitating the Saxon rebellion.