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Institution of affiliation
Importance of Grandmothers in the Evolution Perspectives.
Pieces of evidence have evolved that the grandmothers were very crucial in the history of human evolution. They assisted their species to evolve social skills and have a long life. For centuries, anthropologist and evolutionary researchers have struggled to bring the idea and explain the existences of the menopause stage, a human life stage that is not shared with the primate relatives. The researcher asks themselves why it would be necessary for the female being stopped being able to bear children with some decades left to live. According to the article; Proceeding of the royal society. It is suggested that the grandmothering stage was the first stages that make society who we are. The article explains that the menopause stage underappreciated the evolutionary value of the grandmothers (D. van Bodegom, 2010). Grandmothering assists the society and the community at large to develop a whole spectrum of social capacity that is the foundation of the for the evolution of other differentiated human behaviors which include, bigger mental brains, pair bonding, learning new skills and the tendency of for corporation with other people of the society.
The research was conducted by a mathematical biologist where he was using a computer in compiling the simulation to provide a statistical evidence in the grandmother’s hypothesis. To assess the strength of the ideas, the researcher simulated what would then happen to the lifespan of a hypothetical species primate if they introduced grandmother and menopause as part of SS structure in the system. In the evolutionary theory, the grandmother was influential in the society as they would help in the collection of the food to feed the children before they reach the age of feeding themselves. Assuming that the grandmothers were not there and a mother has given birth and had other young children, the chances of them surviving was less because unlike the other primate, human s are not able to feed themselves and take care of themselves after the period of weaning. The parent must devote themselves, their time and attention to the new baby at the expenses of the older children. But the presence a grandmother can resolve this problem by stepping in and acting as a supplementary caregiver to the children. The researcher has the extent of offering grandmother care and do not always specify the circumstances under which it occurs. Its frequency and the arrangement of parents can alongside the grandparent care and make it hard to make a clear picture (Gray, 2013).
The grandmother plays an eminent function in providing children care and offering support employment more so for the low earning families. From research, the grandparent was the main child care arrangement for thirty-five percent of the families selected where the women were either studying or working when the children are of some months old, apart from all other types of care but very few grandmothers offers full-time care and management. Most of those who provide for the care do so for about or fewer hours a week.
Grandmother care can take many kinds, from occasionally bedsitting through regular assist with child care to being the sole or major provider of childcare while parents work or living with the kids in a multi-generational home. The grandmothers may also care for the children whose parent are unwilling or unable to take care of the kids, either as ‘kingship care’ where the organization is made by the social services. Then the stage of grandmother involvement is larger for mothers who return to work earlier before their young kids attain six months of age and more so in single-parent families. The grandmother is likely to offer support when the grandchildren are the first-born or where mothers are younger, and the mothers work on part-time basis. There are some elements that children are receiving informal childcare in their first several years of life have a good vocabulary but do less well literally and numerous tests and are likely to be overweight and have a raised level of hyper activity and some peer difficulties. Although in some cases the relationship only gets to the children from the more privileged home.
From his research, he suggested that the few number of ancestral females who were in the first able to live postmenopausal ages raised the chances of their grandchildren surviving. As a result, the longer-lived female was not proportionally likely to pass their genes that would favor the longevity and hence over the course of hundreds of generations, the generation of the species as a whole evolved longer lifespans (Robert Boyd, 2014). Grandmother continues offering support in children arrangement when the child starts school and specifically during holiday times. In some cases, the parental separation, most of the kids continue to experience a close relationship with their maternal grandmother but the relationship with the paternal grandparent is weakened, this is from an Australian research that should help that nearly seven lost contact completely.
The researcher goes a step further and argues that the social relations that go together with grandmothering concept could have attributed to a bigger brains and behaviors that differentiate human being. For example, if you are a gorilla or a chimpanzee and your mother is only concerned with you, the researcher likens the scenario with a human baby who your mother has other children and she is worrying about and that only means that there are choices on her which never existed on the other ape creatures, she gets more concerned about her. The suggested that grandmothering gave us the kinds of upbringing that made the children more dependent on themselves and get prone to engage other individual’s attention. The trends above drives to an increase in the brain size along with the longer human lifespan.
The closeness to the grandmother is associated with better grandchild behavior adjustment. However, the effects of the continued contact with the grandmother are likely to depend on the type of the relationship between the grandparent and the mother with care.
In the early 1980s, Kristen and James spent time in their society study with Hadza who was hunters and gathers. The socialized with them and notices that the oldest women in the society spend their time collecting tubers and food for their grandchildren. In their theory, they suggested that the human being evolves to live so long for the reason that the grandmothers lived with them around and offered in helping the young children (Hawkes, 2013). In the early years in the society, the theory suggests that the older women gathered food for their offspring’s kids. By doing so, they were freeing up their daughter to have more kids for continuity of the society. Evolutionally fit the grandmothers had most kids to whom they passed on their longevity promoting genes.
In many studies, positive effects of presences of grandmothers on the well-being of the children. For example it was observed that in country like Tanzania, the grandmothers appears to enhance the nutritional welfare of the grandchildren by assisting their children in provision of foods from the kid, in Gambia the maternal grandmothers usually double the survival chances of their children by taking care of the children and finally in Ethiopia the grandmothers has a positive influence on the child survival through relieving their children from heavy domestic work. A positive environment has been formed in the due to the presence of a grandmother, and the children well-being have been found in our modern society. In the eighteen and nineteenth century in Canada and Finland was associated with less mortality among their grandchildren. The importance of this effects depended however on the age of the grandmother and the children. The ability to take care of the children is based on the role of the grandmothers hold the demands these functions and resources they provide. The more grandchildren an older individuals have more opportunities, and they have the caregivers although the opportunity of giving they have provided become a caregiver despite that the opportunity of giving for a specific child may decrease (Konner, 2013).
In the evolution perspective, on the social, economic resources the grandparent who had a higher social, economic status in the society, they had more resources that allow them to keep close contacts with the kids without the issue of core siding. For those who had higher income they allowed the parent to provide the financial support to the children for the cost of the child care they offered support on the children in the community who were on the following categories; firstly on the parent who had more children, secondly, the parent who had fewer minor children of their own and thirdly, the parent and children who were not in a paid labor force. For the grandmother who was employed, they had less time, and this suggests that they subsidize their children instead of providing care directly. For the teenagers raised by the grandmother, the normative development task of the adolescent are accompanied by a different organization and organization. The way the arrangement was viewed by the adolescent had impacts on the personal narratives they constructed in their lives. The grandmother was raising the kids often were finding themselves deviating not only in the normal development tasks of the adolescence but also raising the teens in who might engage in risk-taking behaviors and they might struggles in being raised by the grandparent’s caregiver arrangements.
The grandmother caregiving is a vital component of the families’ supports in the larger contexts of the generational relationships. The grandmother and children relationship was partially contingent in their roles in the life spheres. For example, the parenthood, marriage and the forced labor participation (Parmel, 2009). The willingness and availability of the grandparent, as well as the preferences and needs and the children, change over the life and the course of the primary determinant and the extent of caregiving provided by the grandmothers. In that context, the individual experience role based relationship as an organization of resources and demand that entails of money, time, attention and skills. The cultural norms that downplay and emphasize the role of the grandmothers affects the type and level of involvements.
[bookmark: _GoBack]The assessment of day-specific chances of preventing the sexual behavior show fertility may reduce in women starting just or immediately after the mid-twenties. In the industrial society, the women in the age of forties have few babies, a sequences that link among modern foragers. Almost all the births that take place are before the period of forty-five years. The ages of the old are often known in captivity and are known more rarely in the wild. While comparing the age of menopause is a very difficult since it menopauses very difficult to document in a human being in the book. In a well fed and nourished normal population menopause to the women ranged widely from the early forties and fifties of age with about half of the women not using hormones is roughly fifty-one. From the sample of other countries, they suggest that there might be presences of some variation among a different human population.
The characteristics of grandmothers that make them fit in the society include the following;
Firstly, willingness to listen, right grandmothers should know how to listen. The virtue of being there to listen to the grandchildren stories and advice that encourage their enthusiasm which is a gift to give to the children. Secondly, empathy; the successful grandparent learn how to see and observe the world through their children eye. This is the privilege of being a grandmother, and they get to interact with their grandchildren and live a life for a little while with their sense of period and their capability of wonders. Thirdly, is the unconditional love, to the grandmother is a rock- solid foundation of love to the children in the family and the society at large. The grandchildren need to know the fact that no matter what might be going in their lives and the disappointment they may face and encounter in school, outside the school and or over the world, they are always safe and bounded by love in their grandmothers’ house. Fourthly, generosity; the most successful grandparent tend to be generous to their children and the society. They buy gifts and presents such as toys, offering financial generosity. They also offer their time, hospitality and advice to the children. Fifthly, detachment; and this means that the grandmothers know how to maintain a healthy distance without necessarily meddling the children views. For example, even the time the children are not doing something right, in the normal way or they opt to follow a different tradition; they best grandmothers should know a way of letting things be and allow them to chart their courses as the parent. Another one is the presence, being a grandmother is not necessarily about buying the present, gifts, taking the kids on special vacations or even hosting then a dinner, apart from the fun things, your presence to the children is the most gracious offer. The kids get to learn many things just for the grandmother being with them. For example, watching how you wash utensil, how you prepare a meal, listening to your songs among others. The grandmothers seeing their multiple generations is an important channel for the children to learn and get educated on how to live. The grandmothers have helped in developing tremendous and romantic relations; researchers have for long predicted that the evolution of larger brains might be what caused by human being to live longer than the apes.
The grandmother’s help played an essential role in playing human life history, in precisely the longevity of human in the evolution concept. The interested of the evolutionary biologist in the grandmother originated on the senescence of evolution. This research aimed at getting the explanation for the existence of a prompt reduction in the reproduction system. In the research, it was suggested that the prolonged need for the care of children started and the evolutionary development in which the termination of the female fertility shifted to the younger kids. It was suggested that the species had a considerable dependency of offspring on the care of the parent.
The characteristic of social history and life institution that distinguish human from other primate evolved due to the increase of reliance on hunting big animal prey that gave a net advantage for bigger brains. The above are have the following features; firstly, the care needs that interfered with maternal hunting, so the grandmother relied on the provisions from the hunting mate. This helped from father allowed the mother to produce more surviving kids. Secondly, the parent formed a lasting bond and nuclear family become important levels of a corporation in which a sexual division of work served as the family objectives of reproduction and production. Thirdly, the mechanism of bipedal movement limited width of pelvic, so brain expansion created a dilemma requirement more brain growth to be postnatal (Meyer, 2014). As a results, the children with increasing brains were immature longer and are more dependent for a longer time on maternal care. Fourthly, bipedalism was favored because it freed hands for the use of tools which have increased the success in at hunting the animals and get a premium on larger brains. Lastly, the drying conditions in the late tertiary constricted forest making the capacities to use alternatives foods merits between the ancestral apes.
According to the aging theory, it is explained that people grow older, fewer fertility remains and hence perpetual survival contribute less reproductive fitness. More so successful reproduction often involves generation as the transfer as well as fertility in women. For the species of the optimal quantity investment tradeoff of children, only the transfer affects the shape of the mortality hence explaining post productive survival and the reason why mortality in children is decrease with age. The theory also explains that the evolution of longer life, lower fertility and increased investment in offspring. The evolutionary theory of aging explains that the as health and function reduces. The individual age and their survival contribute to less reproductive fitness because of the reason their lifetime fertility remains. Consequently, the natural resource selection act more weakly to reduce mortality at the older ages. Despite the fact that this theory has dominated, the evolution of aging has focused on fertility of women alone.
Turning to the children mortality when there is a parental investment, contrast the death of a baby just after the baby fledges. The classical theory predicts of equal selection against kids mortality of ages. The death would lead to freeing of the parental resources for a larger investment in existing of reproduction fitness. In some species, the post-reproductive female makes an essential contribution to their offspring either through direct parental care or grandmother care. This contribution continues after birth. Majorly sex is what mainly provides care to the children that tend to have a higher life expectancy.
In evolution perspectives, the grandparents acted as the National Guard or a watch dog of the society. They offered security to the people, animals, and their property against theft and destruction from their neighbors. Their main aim was to ensure that peace existed in the community. The grandmothers played a significant role in arbitration, where they would bring together two conflicting groups. This ensured that people, relative and the children of the community lived together and embraced peace and love. This promoted peaceful co-existences people in the community. The grandmother also acted as stress buffer; this is where the grandmother would assemble the grand children especially in the evening, teach them folk songs and offer advice. This would relieve the stress that the children would be going through.
The grandmother acted as valued elder where they were regarded as people of integrity, serving as a source of love and equality to all. The grandparent would teach the children on how to make instruments of wars, treating some diseases, herding of animal, preparation of food, cleaning, and farming techniques. They were people of high moral values and acted as a role model and a mentor to the children in the society. The grandmother conveyed the family legacy and culture to other generations in the society (Peter C. Kjærgaard, 2006). They took the role of educating the young kids about their values traditions, norms, and culture of their societies. They were also the silent savior of the young children from faltering families. Some parent were irresponsible, and they could not take care of their children needs, the grandmothers in the society took charge of and provided for the needs of the suffering children. They provided for shelter, food, clothing, and education. This aimed at making them feel that they belong to a particular community and society. Finally, the grandmothers acted as a surrogate parent especially when the birth parent is not present; they might be diseased, and the grandparent would help in planning the children’s education program, monitoring their programs and protecting them.
The grandmothers in the society faces a myriad of challenges,
Thee grandmothers usually have a legal problem which is related to the guardianship such as enrolling the children in the educational institution and accessing medical care for the grandchildren. They might also have the concerns that are related to the custody fights or battles with their grandchildren. Or sometimes to the parents. Another challenge is that the grandparent may have a limited energy in and physical health problems that may make parenting more difficult (Lee Ann Mjelde-Mossey, 2013). More so the grandparent care providers sometimes feel depressed and stressed by the parenting role. Their parenting might also be faced by custodial grandmothers who need information about the behaviors and discipline especially when the children face problems. To offer effective parenting, the grandmother needs current information about child development and discipline and the childhood problems. The grandmother needs to change from traditional ways of raising the children to modern ways. Another challenge which the grandmother is facing is the financial problem, where the grandmother has difficulties in providing adequate food, housing, and clothing to the kids. It is also tricky for the grandmothers to care giver to manage the children. The parent makes unrealistic promises to the kids where the grandmothers struggle in trying to protect the children. Additionally, it might be very disappointing when seeing the kids failing as their parent. Lastly, the grandmother may be angered by the children’s parent, guilty about their parenting or embarrassment about their family’s condition (Park 2005).
In conclusion, the grandmother played a vital role in evolution. They provided food to the families, providing education about the norms and regulation following the culture of the community. They offered advice to the youths and children for then to people of integrity in the future. Besides that, they acted as role model where the children emulated the grandparent to whom in many communities they children were named after. For example, if one of your grandparents was a doctor, then the child named after him was trained to be doctors. The values of culture were asses from one generation to the other.
D. van Bodegom, M. R. L. M. M. K. F. T. J. M. R. W., 2010. When grandmothers matter. Gerontology, Volume 56, pp. 214-256.
Gray, P. B., 2013. Evolution and Human Sexual Behavior. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
HAWKES, K., 2003. Grandmothers and the Evolution of Human Longevity. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Volume 15, pp. 360-400.
Konner, M., 2010. The Evolution of Childhood: Relationships, Emotion, Mind. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Lee Ann Mjelde-Mossey, I. C., 2013. Women and Aging International: Diversity, Challenges and Contributions. London : Routledge.
Meyer, M. H., 2014. Grandmothers at Work: Juggling Families and Jobs. New York: NYU Press.
Palmer, D., 2009. Evolution: The Story of Life. California: University of California Press.
Park, H.-O., 2005. Grandmothers raising grandchildren: Family well-being and economic assistance. Volume 24, pp. 189-267.
Peter C. Kjærgaard, D. V. A. M., 2006. Human Evolution: Theory and Progress. The Archaeological, Volume 6, pp. 320-432.
Robert Boyd, J. B. S., 2014. How Humans Evolved: Seventh Edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

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